Eric Goldman’s Helpful Hints

To Knowing Your Trademark Terms!


Likelihood of Confusion


Seventh Circuit “digits” of confusion (Forum, Schwinn, AHP):





(1)               mark is “famous”

-         degree of distinctiveness

-         duration/extent of mark use

-         duration/extent of advertising and publicity

-         geography of mark’s trading area

-         trade channels for goods and services associated with mark

-         degree of mark recognition

-         nature and extent of similar marks

-         mark registered?

(2)               defendant used in commerce

(3)               defendant’s use began after the mark became famous

(4)               dilution (lessening of a famous mark’s capacity to identify/distinguish goods or services)


Uniform Dispute Resolution Procedure


(1)               the domain name is confusing similar (or identical) to a third party’s mark

(2)               the registrant has no legitimate interests in the name


But registrant can show legitimate rights by:

-         actual or planned bona fide offering of goods/services;

-         it is commonly known by the domain name; or

-         making a legitimate noncommercial or fair use without intent for commercial gain, misleading diversion of traffic, or dilution.


(3)               the name is being used in bad faith:

-         acquired the name for profitable resale;

-         registered the name to block the legitimate TM owner if a pattern can be shown;

-         acquired name to disrupt a competitor; or

-         name is intended to attract attention to site by creating a likelihood of confusion.


Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act


(1)               Domain name registrant registers a domain name containing a third party trademark

(2)               has a bad faith intent to profit from the domain name

-         the registrant’s IP rights in the domain name

-         if the domain name contains the registrant’s real name

-         the use of the domain name in a bona fide offering of goods/services

-         a bona fide noncommercial or fair use of the domain name

-         an intent to divert consumers in a way that harms the trademark owner’s goodwill

-         an offer to sell the domain name without having used it for a bona fide offering of goods/services

-         providing false contact info

-         multiple bogus registrations

-         distinctiveness/famousness of the mark

(3)               registers, traffics in or uses a domain name that is identical or confusingly similar to the mark or, in the case of a famous mark, dilutes it.